Univerisity of Kentucky

College of Agriculture,
food and Environment

Ren Lab



Dangal, Shree R.S., H. Tian, C. Lu, W. Ren, S. Pan, J. Yang, N. Di Cosmo, A. Hessl (2017), Integrating Herbivore Population Dynamics into a Global Land Biosphere Model: Plugging Animals into the Earth System. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems.(IF = 4.189)

Coyne, Mark S., W. Ren, (2017) "Managing Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Agricultural Fields", Plant and Soil Sciences Research Report. 9. http://uknowledge.uky.edu/pss_reports/9

Zhang, C., and W. Ren (2017), Complex climatic and CO2 controls on net primary productivity of temperate dryland ecosystems over central Asia during 1980–2014, Journal of Geophysical Research:Biogeosciences., 122, doi:10.1002/ 2017JG003781. (IF =3.395)

Zhu, X., Qiu, X., Zeng, Y., Ren, W., Tao, B., Gao, J, Liu, H., Tan, Y. (2017), Effects of complex terrain on net surface longwave radiation in China. Theoretical and Applied Climatology. 1-14, DOI: 10.1007/s007040017-2272-9 (IF = 2.640)

Zhu, X., Qiu, X., Zeng, Y., Ren, W., Tao, B., Pan, H., Gao, T. and Gao, J (2017), High-resolution precipitation downscaling in mountainous areas over China: development and application of a statistical mapping approach. International Journal of Climatology, doi: 10.1002/joc.5162 (IF = 3.760)

Pan, S., G. Chen, W. Ren, SRS Dangal, K. Banger, J. Yang, B. Tao, and H. Tian (2017), Responses of global terrestrial water use efficiency to climate change and rising atmospheric CO2 concentration in the twenty-first century, International Journal of Digital Earth, 1-25, DOI: 10.1080/17538947.2017.1337818 (IF =2.292)

Zhang, J., P. An, J. Yang, W. Ren, Z. Pan, Z. Dong, G. Han, S. Pan, Y. Pan, H. Tian (2017), Enhancing soil drought induced by climate change and agricultural practices: Observational and experimental evidence from the semiarid area of northern China, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 243: 74–83 (IF = 3.887)


Ren, W., H.Q. Tian, W. Cai, S.E. Lohrenz, C.S. Hopkinson, W. Huang, J. Yang, B. Tao, S.F. Pan, and R. He (2016), Century-long increasing trend and variability of dissolved organic carbon export from the Mississippi River basin driven by natural and anthropogenic forcing, Global Biogeochemical Cycle, 30(9):1288-1299, DOI: 10.1002/2016GB005395. (IF = 4.655)

Chen, S., B. Tao, and W. Ren(2016), Disaster prevention and reduction in Anthropocene, Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 10(5): 19, DOI: 10.1007/s11783-016-0882-6. (IF = 1.716)

Tian, H.Q., W. Ren, B. Tao, G. Sun, A. Chappelka, X. Wang, S. Pan, J. Yang, J. Liu, B. S. Felzer, J. M. Melillo, and J. Reilly (2016), Climate extremes and ozone pollution: a growing threat to China's food security, Ecosystem Health and Sustainability, 2(1), DOI:10.1002/ehs2.1203.

An, P., W. Ren, X. Liu, M. Song, and X. Li (2016), Adjustment and Optimization of the Cropping Systems under Water Constraint, Sustainability, 8 (12): 1207, DOI: 10.3390/su8121207. (IF = 1.789)

Zhang, B., H.Q. Tian, W. Ren, B. Tao, C. Lu, J. Yang, K. Banger, and S. Pan (2016), Methane Emissions from global rice fields: Magnitude, spatiotemporal patterns and environmental controls, Global Biogeochemical Cycle,30(9):1246-1263, DOI: 10.1002/2016GB005381. (IF = 4.655)

Jin, N., B. Tao, W. Ren, M. Feng, R. Sun, L. He, W. Zhuang, and Q. Yu (2016), Mapping Irrigated and Rainfed Wheat Areas Using Multi-Temporal Satellite Data, Remote Sensing, 8(3):207, DOI: 10.3390/rs8030207. (IF = 3.244)

Xue, Z., R. He, K. Fennel, W. Cai, S. Lohrenz, W. Huang, H.Q. Tian, W. Ren, and Z. Zang (2016), Modeling pCO2 variability in the Gulf of Mexico, Biogeosciences, 11(8): 12673-12695, DOI:10.5194/bgd-11-12673-2014. (IF = 3.851)

Yang, Q., H.Q. Tian, X. Li, W. Ren, B. Zhang, X. Zhang, and J. Wolf (2016), Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012, Science of the Total Environment, 541: 1592-1602, DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv. 2015.10.044. (IF = 4.900)


Ren, W., H. Q. Tian, B. Tao, J. Yang, S. F. Pan, W. J. Cai, S. E. Lohrenz, R. Y. He, and C. S. Hopkinson (2015), Large increase in dissolved inorganic carbon flux from the Mississippi River to Gulf of Mexico due to climatic and anthropogenic changes over the 21st century, Journal of Geophysical Research:Biogeosciences, 120(4), 724-736, doi:10.1002/2014jg002761. (IF = 3.395)

Yang, J., H.Q. Tian, B. Tao, W. Ren, S. F. Pan, Y.Q. Liu, and Y. H. Wang (2015), A growing importance of large fires in conterminous United States during 1984-2012, Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 120(12): 2625-2640, DOI:10.1002/2015jg002965. (IF = 3.395)

Banger, K., H. Q. Tian, B. W. Zhang, C. Q. Lu, W. Ren, and B. Tao (2015), Biosphere atmosphere exchange of methane in India as influenced by multiple environmental changes during 1901-2010, Atmospheric Environment, 119:192-200, DOI: 10.1016/ j.atmosenv. 2015.06.008. (IF = 3.629)

Yang, J., H.Q. Tian, B. Tao, W. Ren, Lu. C, Pan. S, Wang. Y, and Liu. Y (2015), Century-scale patterns and trends of global pyrogenic carbon emissions and fire influences on terrestrial carbon balance, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 29(9): 1549-1566, DOI: 10.1002/2015GB005160. (IF = 4.655)

Zhang, J., W. Ren, P. An, Z. Pan, L. Wang, Z. Dong, D. He, J. Yang, S. Pan, and H.Q. Tian (2015), Responses of Crop Water Use Efficiency to Climate Change and Agronomic Measures in the Semiarid Area of Northern China, PLOS ONE, 10(9): e0137409, DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0137409. (IF = 2.806)

Tian, H.Q., G. Chen, C. Lu, X. Xu, W. Ren, B. Zhang, K. Banger, B. Tao, S. Pan, M. Liu, C. Zhang, L. Bruhwiler, and S. Wofsy (2015), Global methane and nitrous oxide emissions from terrestrial ecosystems due to multiple environmental changes, Ecosystem Health and Sustainability, 1(1):1-20, DOI:10.1890/EHS14-0015.1.

Tian, H.Q., W. Ren, J. Yang, B. Tao, W.J. Cai, S.E. Lohrenz, C.S. Hopkinson, M.L. Liu, Q.C. Yang, C.Q. Lu, B.W. Zhang, K. Banger, S.F. Pan, R.Y. He, and Z. Xue (2015), Climate extremes dominating seasonal and interannual variations in carbon export from the Mississippi River Basin, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 29(9):1333-1347, DOI: 10.1002/2014GB005068. (IF = 4.655)

Tian, H.Q., Q.C. Yang, R.G. Najjar, W. Ren, M.A.M. Friedrichs, C.S. Hopkinson, and S.F. Pan (2015), Anthropogenic and climatic influences on carbon fluxes from eastern North America to the Atlantic Ocean: A process-based modeling study, Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 120(4): 752-772, DOI: 10.1002/2014jg002760. (IF = 3.395)

Pan, S.F., H.Q. Tian, S.R.S. Dangal, Z.Y. Ouyang, C.Q. Lu, J. Yang, B. Tao, W. Ren, K. Banger, Q.C. Yang, and B.W. Zhang (2015), Impacts of climate variability and extremes on global net primary production in the first decade of the 21st century, Journal of Geographical Sciences, 25(9):1027-1044, DOI:10.1007/s11442-015-1217-4. (IF = 2.364)

Banger, K., H.Q. Tian, B. Tao, W. Ren, S.F. Pan, S. Dangal, and J. Yang (2015), Terrestrial net primary productivity in India during 1901-2010: contributions from multiple environmental changes, Climatic Change, 132(4):575-588, DOI:10.1007/s10584-015-1448-5. (IF = 3.496)

Tian, H.Q., C.Q. Lu, J. Yang, K. Banger, D.N. Huntzinger, C.R. Schwalm, A.M. Michalak, R. Cook, P. Ciais, D. Hayes, M.Y. Huang, A. Ito, A.K. Jain, H.M. Lei, J.F. Mao, S.F. Pan, W.M. Post, S.S. Peng, B. Poulter, W. Ren, D. Ricciuto, K. Schaefer, X.Y. Shi, B. Tao, W. L. Wang, Y.X. Wei, Q.C. Yang, B.W. Zhang, and N. Zeng (2015), Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models: Current status and future directions, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 29(6): 775-792, DOI:10.1002/ 2014gb005021. (IF = 4.655)

Pan, S. F., H.Q. Tian, S.R.S. Dangal, Q.C. Yang, J. Yang, C.Q. Lu, B. Tao, W. Ren, and Z.Y. Ouyang (2015), Responses of global terrestrial evapotranspiration to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 in the 21st century, Earths Future, 3(1):15-35, DOI:10.1002/2014ef000263. (IF = 4.938)

Banger, K., H.Q. Tian, B. Tao, C.Q. Lu, W. Ren, and J. Yang (2015), Magnitude, Spatiotemporal Patterns, and Controls for Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in India during 1901-2010, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 79(3):864-875, DOI:10.2136/sssaj 2014.11.0456. (IF = 1.844)

Yang, Q., H.Q. Tian, X. Li, B. Tao, W. Ren, G. Chen, C. Lu, J. Yang, S. Pan, K. Banger, and B. Zhang (2015), Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration along the North American east coast as influenced by multiple environmental changes, Ecohydrology, 8(4): 714-725, DOI:10.1002/eco.1538. (IF = 2.852)


Dang, Y., W. Ren, B. Tao, G. Chen, C. Lu, J. Yang, S. Pan, G. Wang, S. Li, and H.Q. Tian (2014), Climate and Land Use Controls on Soil Organic Carbon in the Loess Plateau Region of China, PLOS ONE, 9(5): e95548, DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095548. (IF = 2.806)

Tao, B., H.Q. Tian, W. Ren, J. Yang, Q. Yang, R. He, W. Cai, and S. Lohrenz (2014), Increasing Mississippi river discharge throughout the 21st century influenced by changes in climate, land use, and atmospheric CO2, Geophysical Research Letters, 41(14): 4978-4986, DOI:10.1002/2014gl060361. (IF = 4.253)

Pan, S.F., H.Q. Tian, S.R.S. Dangal, C. Zhang, J. Yang, B. Tao, Z.Y. Ouyang, X.K. Wang, C.Q. Lu, W. Ren, K. Banger, Q.C. Yang, B.W. Zhang, and X. Li (2014), Complex Spatiotemporal Responses of Global Terrestrial Primary Production to Climate Change and Increasing Atmospheric CO2 in the 21st Century, PLOS ONE, 9(11): e112810, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0112810. (IF = 2.806)

Pan, S., H.Q. Tian, S.R.S. Dangal, Z. Ouyang, B. Tao, W. Ren, C. Lu, and S. Running (2014), Modeling and Monitoring Terrestrial Primary Production in a Changing Global Environment: Toward a Multiscale Synthesis of Observation and Simulation, Advances in Meteorology, 17, DOI:10.1155/2014/965936. (IF =1.277)

Yang, J., H.Q. Tian, B. Tao, W. Ren, J. Kush, Y.Q. Liu, and Y.H. Wang (2014), Spatial and temporal patterns of global burned area in response to anthropogenic and environmental factors: Reconstructing global fire history for the 20th and early 21st centuries, Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 119(3):249-263, DOI:10.1002/2013jg002532. (IF =3.395)

Tian, H.Q., G. Chen, C. Lu, X. Xu, D.J. Hayes, W. Ren, S. Pan, D.N. Huntzinger, and S.C. Wofsy (2014), North American terrestrial CO2 uptake largely offset by CH4 and N2O emissions: toward a full accounting of the greenhouse gas budget, Climatic Change, 129(3): 413-426, DOI:10.1007/s10584-014-1072-9. (IF = 3.496)


Tian, H.Q., G. Chen, C. Lu, X. Xu, W. Ren, K. Banger, B. Zhang, B. Tao, S. Pan, M. Liu, and C. Zhang (2013), Global land-atmosphere exchange of methane and nitrous oxide: magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns, Biogeosciences, 10:19811-19865, DOI:10.5194/bgd-10-19811-2013. (IF = 3.851)

Tao, B., H. Tian, G. Chen, W. Ren, C. Lu, K.D. Alley, X. Xu, M. Liu, S. Pan, and H. Virji (2013) Terrestrial carbon balance in tropical Asia: Contribution from cropland expansion and land management, Global Planet Change, 100, 85-98, doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.09.006. (IF =3.915)


Ren, W., H.Q. Tian, B. Tao, Y. Huang, and S.F. Pan (2012), China's crop productivity and soil carbon storage as influenced by multifactor global change, Global Change Biology, 18(9):2945-2957, DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02741.x. (IF = 8.502)

Tian, H.Q., C.Q. Lu, J. Melillo, W. Ren, Y. Huang, X.F. Xu, M.L. Liu, C. Zhang, G.S. Chen, S.F. Pan, J.Y. Liu, and J. Reilly (2012), Food benefit and climate warming potential of nitrogen fertilizer uses in China, Environmental Research Letters, 7(4): 044020, DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044020. (IF = 4.404)

Xu, X.F., H.Q. Tian, G.S. Chen, M.L. Liu, W. Ren, C.Q. Lu, and C. Zhang (2012), Multifactor controls on terrestrial N2O flux over North America from 1979 through 2010, Biogeosciences, 9(4):1351-1366, DOI: 10.5194/bg-9-1351-2012. (IF =3.851)

Tian, H.Q., G.S. Chen, C. Zhang, M.L. Liu, G. Sun, A. Chappelka, W. Ren, X.F. Xu, C.Q. Lu, S.F. Pan, H. Chen, D.F. Hui, S. McNulty, G. Lockaby, and E. Vance (2012), Century-Scale Responses of Ecosystem Carbon Storage and Flux to Multiple Environmental Changes in the Southern United States, Ecosystems, 15(4):674-694, DOI:10.1007/s10021-012-9539-x. (IF = 4.198)

Lu, C.Q., H.Q. Tian, M.L. Liu, W. Ren, X.F. Xu, G.S. Chen, and C. Zhang (2012), Effect of nitrogen deposition on China's terrestrial carbon uptake in the context of multifactor environmental changes, Ecological Applications, 22(1):53-75, DOI: 10.1890/10-1685.1. (IF = 4.314)

Liu, M.L., H.Q. Tian, C.Q. Lu, X.F. Xu, G.S. Chen, and W. Ren (2012), Effects of multiple environment stresses on evapotranspiration and runoff over eastern China, Journal of Hydrology, 426:39-54, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.01.009. (IF = 3.483)

Chen, G.S., H.Q. Tian, C. Zhang, M.L. Liu, W. Ren, W.Q. Zhu, A.H. Chappelka, S.A. Prior, and G.B. Lockaby (2012), Drought in the Southern United States over the 20th century: variability and its impacts on terrestrial ecosystem productivity and carbon storage, Climatic Change, 114(2):379-397, DOI: 10.1007/s10584-012-0410-z. (IF = 3.496)

Wang, L.L., H.Q. Tian, C.C. Song, X.F. Xu, G.S. Chen, W. Ren, and C.Q. Lu (2012), Net exchanges of CO2, CH4 and N2O between marshland and the atmosphere in Northeast China as influenced by multiple global environmental changes, Atmospheric Environment, 63:77-85, DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.08.069. (IF = 3.629)

Zhang, C., H.Q. Tian, G.S. Chen, A. Chappelka, X.F. Xu, W. Ren, D.F. Hui, M.L. Liu, C.Q. Lu, S.F. Pan, and G. Lockaby (2012), Impacts of urbanization on carbon balance in terrestrial ecosystems of the Southern United States, Environmental Pollution. 164:89-101, DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2012.01.020. (IF = 5.099)


Ren, W., H.Q. Tian, B. Tao, A. Chappelka, G. Sun, C.Q. Lu, M.L. Liu, G.S. Chen, and X.F. Xu (2011), Impacts of tropospheric ozone and climate change on net primary productivity and net carbon exchange of China's forest ecosystems, Global Ecology and Biogeography, 20(3): 391-406, DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00606.x. (IF = 6.045)

Ren, W., H.Q. Tian, X.F. Xu, M.L. Liu, C.Q. Lu, G.S. Chen, J. Melillo, J. Reilly, and J.Y. Liu (2011), Spatial and temporal patterns of CO2 and CH4 fluxes in China's croplands in response to multifactor environmental changes, Tellus, 63(2):222-240, DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2010.00522.x. (IF = 2.854)

Tian, H.Q., X.F. Xu, C.Q. Lu, M.L. Liu, W. Ren, G.S. Chen, J. Melillo, and J.Y. Liu (2011), Net exchanges of CO2, CH4, and N2O between China's terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere and their contributions to global climate warming, Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 116(G2), DOI: 10.1029/2010jg001393. (IF = 3.395)

Tian, H.Q., J. Melillo, C.Q. Lu, D. Kicklighter, M.L. Liu, W. Ren, X.F. Xu, G.S. Chen, C. Zhang, S.F. Pan, J.Y. Liu, and S. Running (2011), China's terrestrial carbon balance: Contributions from multiple global change factors, Global Biogeochemical Cycle, 25(1), DOI: 10.1029/2010gb003838. (IF = 4.655)

Tian, H.Q., C. Lu, G. Chen, X. Xu, M. Liu, W. Ren, B. Tao, G. Sun, S. Pan, and J. Liu (2011), Climate and land use controls over terrestrial water use efficiency in monsoon Asia, Ecohydrology, 4(2): 322-340, DOI:10.1002/eco.216. (IF = 2.852)

Tao, B., H.Q. Tian, G. Chen, W. Ren, C. Lu, K. D. Alley, X. Xu, M. Liu, S. Pan, and H. Virji (2011), Changes in carbon fluxes and pools induced by cropland expansion in South and Southeast Asia in the 20th century, Biogeosciences, 8(6):11979-12012, DOI:10.5194/bgd-8-11979-2011. (IF =3.851)


Xu, X. F., H.Q. Tian, C. Zhang, M.L. Liu, W. Ren, G.S. Chen, C.Q. Lu, and L. Bruhwiler (2010), Attribution of spatial and temporal variations in terrestrial methane flux over North America, Biogeosciences, 7(11):3637-3655, DOI: 10.5194/bg-7-3637-2010. (IF =3.851)

Tian, H.Q., X. Xu, M. Liu, W. Ren, C. Zhang, G. Chen, and C. Lu (2010), Spatial and temporal patterns of CH4 and N2O fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of North America during 1979-2008: application of a global biogeochemistry model, Biogeosciences, 7(9): 2673-2694, DOI:10.5194/bg-7-2673-2010. (IF =3.851)

Tian, H.Q., G.S. Chen, M.L. Liu, C. Zhang, G. Sun, C.Q. Lu, X.F. Xu, W. Ren, S.F. Pan, and A. Chappelka (2010), Model estimates of net primary productivity, evapotranspiration, and water use efficiency in the terrestrial ecosystems of the southern United States during 1895-2007, Forest Ecology and Management, 259(7): 1311-1327, DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2009.10.009. (IF = 3.064)

Tian, H.Q., M.L. Liu, C. Zhang, W. Ren, X.F. Xu, G.S. Chen, C.Q. Lu, and B. Tao (2010), The dynamic land ecosystem model (DLEM) for simulating terrestrial processes and interactions in the context of multifactor global change, Acta Geographica Sinica, 65(9): 1027-1047.

Before 2010

Liu, M.L., H.Q. Tian, G.S. Chen, W. Ren, C. Zhang, and J.Y. Liu (2008), Effects of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change on Evapotranspiration and Water Yield in China during 1900-2000, Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 44(5): 1193-1207, DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2008.00243.x. (IF =1.717)

Ren, W., H.Q. Tian, G. Chen, M. Liu, C. Zhang, A.H. Chappelka, and S. Pan (2007), Influence of ozone pollution and climate variability on net primary productivit and carbon storage in China's grassland ecosystems from 1961 to 2000, Environmental Pollution, 149(3): 327-335, DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2007.05.029. (IF = 5.099)

Ren, W., H.Q. Tian, M.L. Liu, C. Zhang, G.S. Chen, S.F. Pan, B. Felzer, and X.F. Xu (2007), Effects of tropospheric ozone pollution on net primary productivity and carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems of China, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 112(D22), DOI: 10.1029/2007jd008521. (IF =3.454)

Ren, W., and H.Q. Tian (2007), Ozone pollution and terrestrial ecosystem productivity, Journal of Plant Ecology, 31(2): 219-230. (In Chinese with English Abstract) (IF =1.754)

Zhang, C., H.Q. Tian, A.H. Chappelka, W. Ren, H. Chen, S.F. Pan, M.L. Liu, D.M. Styers, G.S. Chen, and Y.H. Wang (2007), Impacts of climatic and atmospheric changes on carbon dynamics in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Environmental Pollution, 149(3):336-347, DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2007.05.028. (IF =5.099)

Ren, W., K.M. Yao, and Q. Yu (2003), Effect of water control in combination of depth and amount on dry matter partition and water use efficiency of winter wheat, Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 11(4): 92-94.

Ren, W., and K.M. Yao (2002), Dry matter distribution model: a view, Meteorology Education and Science Technology, 24(3): 18-22.

Book Chapters and Conference Proceedings

Ren W. (2017) Towards an Integrated Agroecosystem Modeling Approach for Climate-Smart Agricultural Management. In: Bridging Among Disciplines by Synthesizing Soil and Plant Processes.(accepted)

Tian H., Xu X., Zhang C., W. Ren, Chen G., Liu M., Lu D., Pan S. (2008). Forecasting and assessing the large scale and long-term impacts of global environmental change on terrestrial ecosystems in the United States and China. In: Real World Ecology: large scale and long-term case studies and methods. (Miao S., Carstenn S., and Nungesser M. eds), Springer, New York.

Liu, M., Tian H., Zhang C., Chen G., W. Ren, Xu X., Pan S., Wang X., and Nagy C.. (2007). Effects of urbanization and land use change on water yield – A case study of Haihe Basin in China. Laband, D. (eds.) Emerging Issues Along Urban/Rural Interfaces 2: Linking Land Use Science and Society. Conference Proceedings, Atlanta, Georgia, April 9 12, 2007.

Chen, G., Tian, H., Liu, M., W. Ren, Zhang, C., Pan, S., 2006. Climate Impacts on China's Terrestrial Carbon Cycle: An Assessment with the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model. In: Tian, H.Q. (Eds.), Environmental Modelling and Simulation, ACTA Press, Anaheim/ Calgary/ Zurich, p56 70.